Sterling Bank Plc (STERLN.ng) Q32019 Interim Report

first_imgSterling Bank Plc (STERLN.ng) listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange under the Banking sector has released it’s 2019 interim results for the third quarter.For more information about Sterling Bank Plc (STERLN.ng) reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the Sterling Bank Plc (STERLN.ng) company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: Sterling Bank Plc (STERLN.ng)  2019 interim results for the third quarter.Company ProfileSterling Bank Plc is a financial services institution in Nigeria offering banking products and services to the corporate and commercial sectors as well as high net-worth individuals, small businesses and joint venture partnerships. The company provides a full-service offering for consumer and commercial banking as well as corporate, investment and wholesale banking. This includes loans and advances, letters of credit, equipment leasing, money market operations and electronic banking as well as financial advisory and securities trading services. The company was founded in 1960 and formerly known as NAL Bank Plc. Its head office is in Lagos, Nigeria. Sterling Bank Plc is listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchangelast_img read more

Forget the National Lottery and NS&I Premium Bonds. I’d buy UK shares to make a million

first_imgSimply click below to discover how you can take advantage of this. I’m sure you’ll agree that’s quite the statement from Motley Fool Co-Founder Tom Gardner.But since our US analyst team first recommended shares in this unique tech stock back in 2016, the value has soared.What’s more, we firmly believe there’s still plenty of upside in its future. In fact, even throughout the current coronavirus crisis, its performance has been beating Wall St expectations.And right now, we’re giving you a chance to discover exactly what has got our analysts all fired up about this niche industry phenomenon, in our FREE special report, A Top US Share From The Motley Fool. Image source: Getty Images Click here to claim your copy now — and we’ll tell you the name of this Top US Share… free of charge! Our 6 ‘Best Buys Now’ Shares Forget the National Lottery and NS&I Premium Bonds. I’d buy UK shares to make a million Peter Stephens | Saturday, 24th October, 2020 UK shares may not be seen as an obvious means of making a million by many people. The stock market crash has left the FTSE 100 down by around 20% since the start of the year. Other stocks have produced even worse performances in 2020.However, the long-term potential of British shares continues to be relatively attractive. As such, they could be a better use of any spare capital than the National Lottery or NS&I Premium Bonds.5G is here – and shares of this ‘sleeping giant’ could be a great way for you to potentially profit!According to one leading industry firm, the 5G boom could create a global industry worth US$12.3 TRILLION out of thin air…And if you click here we’ll show you something that could be key to unlocking 5G’s full potential…Over time, FTSE 100 and FTSE 250 shares could be a sound means of generating high returns. They may even produce a £1m portfolio as their recovery takes hold.The prospects for UK sharesUK shares may have experienced a poor performance in 2020. However, their long-term prospects continue to be relatively good. For example, the FTSE 100 has always recovered from its previous declines to post new record highs. So its current price level could represent excellent value for money for any investor with a long time horizon. They may be able to fully benefit from the index’s likely turnaround over the coming years.Certainly, there may be further challenges ahead. Risks such as Brexit and the pandemic may continue to cause weak investor sentiment and difficult operating conditions for businesses. However, previous crises have gradually fade. These have always been replaced by positive GDP growth that produces more attractive operating conditions for businesses. This could lead to improving investor sentiment that allows UK shares to post high-single-digit annual returns over the coming years.The outlook for NS&I Premium Bonds and the National LotteryMaking a million from UK shares is likely to take many years. As such, some people may decide that the prospect of making a million from NS&I Premium Bonds or the National Lottery is more appealing.However, low interest rates mean that the Premium Bonds annual prize fund is set to move to just 1% by the end of 2020. While there is still a very slim chance of winning large sums of money, the annual return is similar to that of cash savings accounts. Meanwhile, the odds of winning the National Lottery stand at just one in 45m.Making a millionBy contrast, high-single-digit returns on UK shares can be achieved by almost any investor. Even if someone has only a modest amount of money available each month, they can still generate a large portfolio over the long run. For example, investing  £300 per month at the FTSE 100’s annual historic total return of 8% would produce a £1m portfolio within 40 years.With many stocks currently trading at cheap prices after the market crash, we could all improve our odds of obtaining a seven-figure portfolio by investing in a diverse range of British shares today for the long term. Renowned stock-picker Mark Rogers and his analyst team at The Motley Fool UK have named 6 shares that they believe UK investors should consider buying NOW.So if you’re looking for more stock ideas to try and best position your portfolio today, then it might be a good day for you. Because we’re offering a full 33% off your first year of membership to our flagship share-tipping service, backed by our ‘no quibbles’ 30-day subscription fee refund guarantee. See all posts by Peter Stephens Enter Your Email Address I would like to receive emails from you about product information and offers from The Fool and its business partners. Each of these emails will provide a link to unsubscribe from future emails. More information about how The Fool collects, stores, and handles personal data is available in its Privacy Statement. “This Stock Could Be Like Buying Amazon in 1997”last_img read more

Dimitri Yachvili and his World Cup moments

first_img Yachvili reacts after losing to New Zealand in the Rugby World Cup Final I am so proud of my team-mates for the way we played in the World Cup final.We showed pride in our jersey and incredible team spirit. Clearly we’re disappointed to lose by one point but we have to pay tribute to the All Blacks, who deserved to win. They played some really great rugby, not just in the final. They’re the best in the world.We showed the best of French rugby in that final. We played with our heart and it almost took us to victory. People doubted us when we lost to Tonga in the pool stage but we kept our focus and solidarity. For us, there were two World Cups in one – one for the pool stage and one for the knockout matches.France faced up to the Haka, and also faced an automatic £2,500 fineAfter the Tonga game we had a big meeting and told the coaches we were lost with the game plan. So we decided to go back to basics, get the simple things right. That allowed us to come back. And as we received a lot of criticism from everybody, we said, ‘We are a family.’ We stayed united, and even though everyone thought we’d lose by 30 points in the final, we told ourselves, ‘Is there any risk for us? No. Let’s play.’We had a number of important leaders – our captain Thierry Dusautoir, Lionel Nallet, and Morgan Parra – who helped galvanise us during the knockout stages. Morgan was one of seven leading fly-halves to be injured at RWC 2011. Incredible!Many people will remember the final for the way we responded to the haka. We wanted to start the game during the haka and it showed our intent. We wanted to put them under pressure, show them how hard it would be to beat us.When we were closest to them, we saw in their eyes that they were very surprised (France were fined £2,500 for moving in too close). But when you do this, you have to be excellent afterwards – and I think we were.Before the final we resolved that we would give everything, so we would have no regrets. I believe we did that. In the changing room after the final there were some laughs, many tears, and deep words between men who appreciate each other.There was an amazing atmosphere in New Zealand and I will have fond memories of the 2011 World Cup. New Zealand is a country of rugby and it was our dream to play a World Cup final against the All Blacks at Eden Park. And the future for me? Well, I’m 31 but I want to stay at the top with Les Bleus and build on what we’ve done in 2011.This article appeared in the December 2011 issue of Rugby World Magazine. LATEST RUGBY WORLD MAGAZINE SUBSCRIPTION DEALS Find a newsagent that sells Rugby World in the UK. Or you may prefer the digital edition on your MAC, PC, or iPad. Would you like to sign up to Rugby World’s excellent weekly email newsletter? Click here. For Back Issues Contact John Denton Services at 01733-385-170 visit The French team (white) advance to receive the challenge of the New Zealand All Black Haka before the 2011 Rugby World Cup final match New Zealand vs France at Eden Park Stadium in Auckland on October 23, 2011. AFP PHOTO / GABRIEL BOUYS (Photo credit should read GABRIEL BOUYS/AFP/Getty Images)last_img read more

Have Rugby Teams Upped Their Social Media Games?

first_imgThe Gallagher Premiership season kicks off on the 31st with newly promoted Bristol Bears facing Bath. Amidst teams interacting with each other on Twitter, things might have even gone a bit meta – like with this Bristol Bears tweet after seeing this post… Wasps have shown some of their players, flaws and all (watch the face, Christian Wade). LATEST RUGBY WORLD MAGAZINE SUBSCRIPTION DEALS Harlequins have been making use of their prime assets – by which we mean just putting Joe Marler in front of the cameras. Kyle Eastmond is another player to have left the Wasps and the Leicester Tigers picked him up. The Tigers took to Twitter to tweet out a video of the attacking prowess of the 29-year-old.Related: Gallagher Premiership 2018/19 Signings and Transfers Have Rugby Teams Upped Their Social Media Games?The new domestic rugby season is on the horizon with both the Gallagher Premiership and Guinness Pro14 set to start next week on the 31st of August.As a result many rugby teams have taken to social media to create hype and excitement around the new season, and as you can see below, they have used a variety of creative and different techniques. So to answer the question above, yes they have.For example, the Northampton Saints decided to get new signing James Haskell to interview himself about life with the Saints.The England back-rower and Wasps legend talks about a variety of topics including spending an eye opening night at Swansea University! Related: Pro14 2018/19 Signings and TransfersFinally Munster published a video looking to publicise their upcoming match against the Exeter Chiefs. Playing each other for the first time at Irish Independent Park, they will soon face each other in the Champions Cup too.No doubt the new season starting soon is exciting enough but it is interesting, funny, and good to see teams being more creative in their publicising of their matches! With the new season approaching, rugby teams are getting more creative with their social media accounts. Sale Sharks tweeted out a behind the scenes look at their pre-season training and looked to create some anticipation for the upcoming season. Seeing double: Haskell interviews himself with the Northampton Saints Magic boots @ChristianWade3 pic.twitter.com/zA3PF9PujQ— Wasps Rugby (@WaspsRugby) August 23, 2018 The Guinness Pro 14 also starting on the 31st, has three matches on its opening day as Leinster travel to Cardiff Arms Park to face the Cardiff Blues. The Ospreys face Edinburgh and finally Zebre welcome the Southern Kings.Don’t forget to follow Rugby World on Facebook and Twitter.last_img read more

Northern Ireland charity list now available

first_img  142 total views,  2 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis3 Howard Lake | 14 April 2011 | News Tagged with: Ireland Law / policy Northern Ireland AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis3 The Charity Commission for Northern Ireland has published the names of all organisations in Northern Ireland to which its powers apply.The 6000-name list, which is available on the Commission website, provides details of all organisations granted charitable tax exemption by HMRC as of 18 February 2011. The Commission says the list will be updated quarterly to include new organisations and to remove those no longer recognised as such by HM Revenue & Customs (HMRC).Last month the Commission formally announced the introduction of charity regulation to Northern Ireland.The move allows CCNI to begin its investigatory, compliance, enforcement and regulatory scrutiny of all charities currently registered with HMRC for tax purposes, and will begin the regulators efforts to increase public trust and confidence in charities.The step brings into effect some of the key provisions of the Charities Act (NI) 2008. However, the introduction of a full register of all charities in Northern Ireland has been delayed by a technical problem with the wording of the original legislation. Plans to amend the Charities Act (NI) 2008 are currently being considered by the Minister for Social Development.www.charitycommissionni.org.uk Northern Ireland charity list now available About Howard Lake Howard Lake is a digital fundraising entrepreneur. Publisher of UK Fundraising, the world’s first web resource for professional fundraisers, since 1994. Trainer and consultant in digital fundraising. Founder of Fundraising Camp and co-founder of GoodJobs.org.uk. Researching massive growth in giving.last_img read more

Memorial to commemorate MLK Jr. to come to downtown Fort Worth

first_imgprintA visit decades ago by one of America’s most iconic leaders will be immortalized in downtown Fort Worth. On Oct. 22, 1959, Civil Rights leader and minister Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. made a visit to Fort Worth and now, 58 years later, his visit will be commemorated by the placing of the MLK Memorial Landmark Plaque and Pedestal. The monument was proposed by the Tarrant County Southern Christian Leadership Conference chapter (SCLC) and supported by other academic institutions in the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex. The proposal was accepted as part of the Fort Worth Chamber of Commerce Foundation Heritage Trails in Downtown Fort Worth said president of the local SCLC chapter Rev. Kyev Tatum.King was invited by Vada Felder, the first African American graduate of the Brite Divinity School. He befriended her at a church meeting in Nashville, Tennessee where she asked him to visit the city to deliver a sermon later that year. Upon his arrival, King was met with hate and angry threats. He was forbidden from speaking at TCU and was not allowed to stay at any hotels, so he stayed at Felder’s house. He spoke twice, once in the morning at a prayer breakfast for Brite faculty at social and Christian ethics professor Dr. Harold Lunger’s home, and second at the Fort Worth Majestic Theater in downtown where the memorial gets its name.“It should be noted that the Majestic Theater was the first establishment to quietly integrate in Fort Worth when it allowed blacks to enter through the front door of the theater and sit in the lower seats to hear Dr. King speak,” Tatum said. “It was truly a great day to be alive in Fort Worth, Texas.” President John F. Kennedy’s memorial in Downtown Fort Worth (http://www.presidentsusa.net/jfkmemorialftworth.html)He spoke at the now-gone theater to a crowd of about 400 who paid $1.25 to see him inside. His sermon was entitled “A Great Time to Be Alive”, which addressed “the struggle to save the soul of America.”The marker will be located in General Worth Square across the street from the John F. Kennedy landmark. The memorial plaque ceremony will be held Wednesday, April 4 on the 50th Anniversary of King’s assassination. Welcome TCU Class of 2025 Linkedin ReddIt TAGSEthnicityFort WorthRace Brandon Kitchinhttps://www.tcu360.com/author/brandon-kitchin/ Brandon Kitchin Campus organizations to host ‘Black Panther’ screening, discussion ESPN’s ‘The Undefeated’ writer visits campus, talks media coverage on Nike, Kaepernick ad Brandon Kitchinhttps://www.tcu360.com/author/brandon-kitchin/ + posts Martin Luther King Jr. and Vada Felder smiling and standing directly right of King at the Majestic Theater on Oct. 22. (Photo courtesy of Brite Divinity School.) Linkedin Facebookcenter_img World Oceans Day shines spotlight on marine plastic pollution Brandon Kitchinhttps://www.tcu360.com/author/brandon-kitchin/ Brandon Kitchin is a junior Journalism major and TCU 360 line editor from Grand Prairie, Texas. If you ever get the chance to meet him, he is such a positive person that you might just have your day made. You can find him in the loudest section of the Amon G. Carter Stadium or on the field at halftime with “The Pride Of TCU,” the Horned Frog Marching Band. He plays bass drum for the TCU Drumline. Martin Luther King Jr. visited Fort Worth thanks to first African-American female graduate of Brite Divinity School Twitter Previous articleGet to know the 2018 Frog Camp directorsNext articleGenHERation event brings students and professionals together Brandon Kitchin RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Brandon Kitchinhttps://www.tcu360.com/author/brandon-kitchin/ ReddIt Nelson Mandela’s former prison guard visits campus to reflect on their unlikely friendship Facebook Twitter TCU places second in the National Student Advertising Competition, the highest in school history last_img read more

Xcel Energy Sets Another Single-Year Record in Carbon Reduction

first_img Facebook TAGS  By Digital AIM Web Support – February 22, 2021 Local NewsBusiness Pinterest Twitter Xcel Energy Sets Another Single-Year Record in Carbon Reduction MINNEAPOLIS–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Feb 22, 2021– For the second year in a row, Xcel Energy has hit a significant milestone in its quest to deliver 100% carbon-free electricity to customers by 2050. This press release features multimedia. View the full release here: https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20210222005590/en/ Xcel Energy Fuel Mix 2019-2020 (Graphic: Business Wire) The company broke its own record for a single-year drop in emissions in 2020, cutting carbon emissions company-wide by approximately six million tons, a 12% reduction over 2019 levels. That’s equivalent to taking nearly 1.2 million cars off the road for a year. In 2019, Xcel Energy achieved a 10% reduction over the previous year. Since 2005, the company has reduced carbon emissions by 51% as it leads the nation’s clean energy transition. Xcel Energy’s 2020 carbon reductions outpaced the industry, which is ahead of any other part of the economy. At the end of 2020, it is estimated the U.S. electric power sector had reduced carbon emissions just under 40% from 2005 levels, according to data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration. “We’re making tremendous progress towards delivering on our clean energy goals,” said Ben Fowke, chairman and CEO of Xcel Energy. “Even after factoring in the effect of the global pandemic on our operations, we are well on our way to achieving our goal of reducing carbon emissions 80% by 2030 and are more than halfway to delivering 100% carbon-free electricity to our customers, all while keeping their service reliable and energy bills low.” Several factors contributed to the 2020 carbon reduction results. Xcel Energy continued to significantly increase wind generation on its system, becoming one of the first energy providers in the United States to reach 10,000 megawatts of wind energy capacity online for customers in the states it serves. The company added more than 800 megawatts of new wind projects in late 2019, in addition to bringing nearly 2,200 megawatts of new wind projects online in 2020. By the end of 2021, Xcel Energy estimates that approximately 35% of its energy will be from wind. Through the company’s wind expansion, it has delivered approximately $430 million in fuel savings to its customers from 2017 to 2020. Thanks to having more wind and solar on its system, the company recorded a 12% reduction in megawatt hours from coal and natural gas generation. To support its growing renewable energy portfolio, it is using cleaner natural gas as backup and pushing the envelope in operating its remaining coal plants to follow the wind and sun. Xcel Energy’s two nuclear plants in Minnesota had another excellent operating year, providing a steady supply of 100% carbon-free power. The pandemic also played a role in reducing the company’s electricity sales by an estimated 3% for the year and contributing to lower carbon emissions. About Xcel Energy Xcel Energy (NASDAQ: XEL) provides the energy that powers millions of homes and businesses across eight Western and Midwestern states. Headquartered in Minneapolis, the company is an industry leader in responsibly reducing carbon emissions and producing and delivering clean energy solutions from a variety of renewable sources at competitive prices. For more information, visit xcelenergy.com or follow us on Twitter and Facebook. View source version on businesswire.com:https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20210222005590/en/ CONTACT: Xcel Energy Media Relations (612) 215-5300 www.xcelenergy.com KEYWORD: UNITED STATES NORTH AMERICA MINNESOTA INDUSTRY KEYWORD: ALTERNATIVE ENERGY ENERGY UTILITIES ENVIRONMENT SOURCE: Xcel Energy Copyright Business Wire 2021. PUB: 02/22/2021 10:00 AM/DISC: 02/22/2021 10:01 AM http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20210222005590/enCopyright Business Wire 2021.Xcel Energy Fuel Mix 2019-2020center_img WhatsApp Pinterest WhatsApp Previous articleIn Israel and beyond, virus vaccines bring political powerNext articleJuniper Research: Smart Traffic Management to Significantly Reduce Congestion and Emissions; Saving Cities $277 Billion by 2025 Digital AIM Web Support Facebook Twitterlast_img read more

Arranmore priest urges maximum support for education campaign after meeting Quinn

first_img RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Dail hears questions over design, funding and operation of Mica redress scheme Twitter Google+ Google+ Twitter Pinterest Facebook Newsx Adverts Facebook Arranmore priest urges maximum support for education campaign after meeting Quinn Previous articleQuinn says he can make no commitments on Buncrana campus planNext articleShop robbed at knife-point in Glenswilly News Highland center_img Dail to vote later on extending emergency Covid powers Man arrested in Derry on suspicion of drugs and criminal property offences released PSNI and Gardai urged to investigate Adams’ claims he sheltered on-the-run suspect in Donegal The group which organised the Education Rally in Letterkenny last March says following Minister Ruari Quinn’s visit to Donegal today, it’s even more important that parents, teachers and others support their planned vigils on May 31st as the country votes on the EU Fiscal Treaty.Between 3 o’clock and 4 o’clock, it’s intended that one hour vigils will take place outside every school being used as a polling station to highlight the message that investment is needed in education and small schools must not be closed.Arranmore priest Fr John Joe Duffy and a parent from one of the affected schools had a brief meeting with Minister Quinn outside Senator Jimmy Harte’s office this afternoon – Fr Duffy says they had a cordial but frank exchange……….[podcast]http://www.highlandradio.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/jonjo530.mp3[/podcast] HSE warns of ‘widespread cancellations’ of appointments next week Pinterest By News Highland – May 18, 2012 WhatsApp WhatsApp Man arrested on suspicion of drugs and criminal property offences in Derrylast_img read more

Role Of A Defence Lawyer During Examination-In-Chief

first_imgColumnsRole Of A Defence Lawyer During Examination-In-Chief Adv. Vijay Aggarwal & Mudit Jain1 Jun 2020 5:10 AMShare This – xAt the outset, it is stated that the role of a defence lawyer during examination-in-chief is the most ignored strategical aspect of defending an accused in a criminal trial and there are no books on this strategical aspect of law. So much so that even a google search does not yield any effective result. Keeping that in mind, the present article focuses to shed light on…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginAt the outset, it is stated that the role of a defence lawyer during examination-in-chief is the most ignored strategical aspect of defending an accused in a criminal trial and there are no books on this strategical aspect of law. So much so that even a google search does not yield any effective result. Keeping that in mind, the present article focuses to shed light on the said strategical aspect of a criminal trial. Role of a Defence Lawyer, while examination-in-chief is going on, is that of a fielder in a Cricket Match: In Cricket, there are three very aspects, that is, batting, bowling and fielding; and they say that good fielding wins matches for the team. In the context of a criminal trial, figuratively speaking, the role of a defence lawyer while examination-in-chief (Section 137 of the Indian Evidence Act) is going on is that of a fielder or a wicketkeeper, with the Batting being done by the Prosecution. And once you know the nuances of law, you can be a Jonty Rhodes! What is examination-in-chief: Section 137 of the Indian Evidence Act 1872 (in short “IEA”) states that the examination-in-chief “is the examination of a witness by the party who calls him”. In a criminal trial instituted by the State, the examination-in-chief is conducted by the Ld. Public Prosecutor (or the Ld. Special Public Prosecutor, as the case may be), who is to establish the case by asking questions from the witness and permitting the witness the answer to the same. Any question suggesting the answer which the person putting it wishes or expects to receive, is called a leading question (See: Section 141 IEA) and Section 142 IEA provides that “Leading questions must not, if objected to by the adverse party, be asked in an examination-in-chief, or in a reexamination, except with the permission of the Court” The purpose of this exercise is to enable the prosecution to elicit material and relevant facts from the witness, to establish the case set-up against the Accused. These form the foundation of facts that the defence has to shake. Hence, ensuring a properly conducted examination in chief is key to a fair trial and for the same, the role of the defence lawyer is of extreme importance. Defence Lawyer should not a mere spectator but an active participant during the examination-in-chief: Considering the importance of the examination-in-chief, it is crucial that a Defence Lawyer is not a mere spectator during the examination-in-chief and it is important that the Defence Lawyer is vigilant and carefully watches the entire examination-in-chief, so as to ensure that no legally impermissible evidence comes on record. It is the duty of the Defence Lawyer to raise legal objections regarding the impermissibility of the evidence led by the Prosecutor during examination-in-chief. Carry a Check-list: Whenever a Defence Lawyer is to attend a matter in which examination-in-chief is to be recorded, the Lawyer should carry a check-list to the Court to see whether the evidence being given by the witness falls under any of the categories mentioned therein and in case it is so, should take the required course of action. Sample check-list is as under: S. No. Role of Defence Lawyer Status Role of ensuring that accurate language is used in the recorded evidence (S. 277 (2) Cr.P.C.) Defence Lawyer is also to ensure that anything favourable to the Accused stated by the witness is not omitted to be recorded To notice the body language of a witness Request the Court to record the demeanour of a witness (S. 280 Cr.P.C.) Objection to examining by prosecution of an irrelevant witness (S. 136 IEA) Objection to proof of proposed fact before proving other fact, upon proof of which only is the former fact admissible (S. 136 2nd Para IEA) Objection to asking of a Leading Question (S. 142 IEA) Objection to Hearsay Evidence (S. 60 IEA) Objection to exhibition of: Photocopy Documents (S. 65 IEA) or Electronic Evidence (S. 65B IEA) or Bank Account Statements (S. 2A Bankers’ Book Evidence Act) Objection to the Exhibition of document on the Mode of Proof thereof Objection to giving evidence contrary to a written document (S. 91 and 92 IEA) Objections to the Opinion by a non-expert Witness (S. 45 IEA) Objection to the witness deposing about aspects of which the Court can take Judicial Notice (S. 56 IEA) Objections to the exhibition of the entire Disclosure Statements of the Accused by the Prosecution (S. 27 IEA) Contesting the attempt of the prosecution to declare a witness as Hostile (S. 154 IEA) Objection to the proof of Statement recorded by the Investigating Officer under Section 161 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (S. 162 Cr.P.C.) Objection to the Exhibition of a letter written by a witness to the Investigating Officer (S. 162 Cr.P.C.) Role of the Defence Lawyer during examination-in-chief: Role of ensuring that accurate language is used in the recorded evidence: There are various cases in which the evidence given by the witness is dictated by the Court itself; however, in various Criminal Courts in India, evidence is recorded simultaneously in more than one matter and / or there are situations wherein, while the evidence is recorded in a matter, the Court is simultaneously taking up other matters (including hearing arguments in the said matter). It so, thus, happens that the evidence is dictated by the Ld. Public Prosecutor for recording. Many a times, the evidence is given by the witness in a vernacular language, however, the evidence is recorded after translating the same into the language of the Court (say, English). Thus, it is the most important role of the defence lawyer that what has been stated by the witness is accurately recorded, also in the exact sense in which the same is stated, so that when the same is subsequently referred to at the final arguments or at the Appellate Stage, the exact same sense comes out. (In case need be, the Defence Lawyer can also request the Court to record within brackets the exact vernacular language used, in order to subsequently have the exact sense of the manner in which the evidence is recorded) Remember, the use of ‘wordings’ in evidence can change the entire sense of the sentence / evidence. For eg., use of a simple word “thus” or “accordingly” in a sentence can give a sense of connectivity between two aspects, which, though may not be the case. Defence Lawyer is also to ensure that anything favourable to the Accused stated by the witness is not omitted to be recorded: The Defence Lawyer is also to ensure that anything favourable to the Accused stated by the witness is not omitted to be recorded in evidence and in case the same is missed, the Defence Lawyer should insist on the recording of the same. For eg., omission to record the words “May be” or “I suppose”, which would show that the evidence is not certain in nature. To notice the body language of a witness: For a successful cross-examination, a Defence Lawyer is also required to notice the body language of the witness, in order to gauge the witness. This is essential for the Defence Lawyer to mould his manner of cross-examination according to the witness. A Defence Lawyer cannot adopt the very same body language towards each witness and has to modify himself. Here, thus, the understanding of human nature becomes very important for a Defence Lawyer. For eg.: By understanding the nature of the witness in the movie Few Good Men, the lawyer was able to get the truth out. Request the Court to record the demeanour of a witness: A defence lawyer must also request the Court to record the demeanour of a witness, in terms of Section 280 Cr.P.C. The same is essential, as in majority of criminal cases, the evidence is recorded by one Presiding Officer but the same is finally heard by another Presiding Officer, who has not seen the actual recording of the evidence. Thus, the recording of the demeanour of the witness helps the Court to appreciate the evidence better. Similarly, the superior courts, who would be presented with only the written evidence, would also be benefitted in case the demeanour of the witness is duly recorded by the Trial Court. Objection to examining by prosecution of an irrelevant witness: A witness, for being examined in a matter, ought to depose on relevant facts to the trial. In case the prosecution proposes to examine an irrelevant witness, which does not pertain to the charges framed by the Court (i.e., relating to facts in issue and relevant facts), the Defence Lawyer ought to object under Section 5 r/w s. 136 IEA to the recording of his evidence and must insist that his objection is recorded. An example can be a witness who is sought to be examined to prove aspects which are beyond the period of charges framed or who, though was examined by the Investigating Agency on an aspect, but subsequently, the charges were not framed by the Court on the said aspect. Objection to proof of proposed fact before proving other fact, upon proof of which only is the former fact admissible: The Defence Lawyer can also object if the prosecution attempts to proof a fact, proof of which is dependent upon proof of some other fact. Such an objection has to be raised in terms of S. 136 2nd Para IEA. The relevant portion of the said section is as under: “136. Judge to decide as to admissibility of evidence — … … … … If the fact proposed to be proved is one of which evidence is admissible only upon proof of some other fact, such last-mentioned fact must be proved before evidence is given of the fact first mentioned, unless the party undertakes to give proof of such fact, and the Court is satisfied with such undertaking. … … … …” Objection to asking of a Leading Question: Any question suggesting the answer which the person putting it wishes or expects to receive, is called a leading question (See: Section 141 IEA). Section 142 IEA provides that “Leading questions must not, if objected to by the adverse party, be asked in an examination-in-chief, or in a reexamination, except with the permission of the Court”. However, to ensure the same does not happen, a Defence Lawyer should always be vigilant in hearing the question put by the Prosecutor and object to the same prior to the same being answered by the witness. Ref: Varkey Joseph Vs. State of Kerala AIR 1993 SC 1892: “11. Leading question to be one which indicates to the witnesses the real or supposed fact which the prosecutor (plaintiff) expects and desires to have confirmed by the answer. Leading question may be used to prepare him to give the answers to the questions about to be put to him for the purpose of identification or to lead him to the main evidence or fact in dispute. The attention of the witness cannot be directed in Chief examination to the subject of the enquiry/trial. The Court may permit leading question to draw the attention of the witness which cannot otherwise by called to the matter under enquiry, trial or investigation. The discretion of the court must only be controlled towards that end but a question which suggest to the witness, the answer the prosecutor expects must not be allowed unless the witness, with the permission of the court, is declared hostile and cross-examination is directed thereafter in that behalf. Therefore, as soon as the witness has been conducted to the material portion of his examination, it is generally the duty of the prosecutor to ask the witness to state the facts or to give his own account of the matter making him to speak as to what he had seen. The prosecutor will not be allowed to frame his questions in such a manner that the witness by answering merely “yes” or “no” will give the evidence which the prosecutor wishes to elicit. The witness must account for what he himself had seen. … … Therein the adverse party is entitled to put leading questions but Section 142 does not give such power to the prosecutor to put leading questions on the material part of the evidence which the witnesses intends to speak against the accused and the prosecutor shall not be allowed to frame questions in such a manner which the witness by answering merely yes or no but he shall be directed to give evidence which he witnessed. The question shall not be put to enable the witness to give evidence which the prosecutor wishes to elicit from the witness nor the prosecutor shall put into witness’s mouth the words which he hoped that the witness will utter nor in any other way suggest to him the answer which it is desired that the witness would give. The counsel must leave the witness to tell unvarnished tale of his own account. Sample leading questions extracted hereinbefore clearly show the fact that the prosecutor led the witnesses what he intended that they should say the material part of the prosecution case to prove against the appellant which is illegal and obviously unfair to the appellant offending his right to fair trial enshrined under Article 21 of the Constitution. It is not a curable irregularity.” Objection to Hearsay Evidence: It is a settled principle of law that the facts to be deposed by a witness are to reflect his personal knowledge and hearsay is excluded, being inadmissible in nature. (See: Section 60 IEA) Every act done, written or spoken which is relevant on any ground must be proved by someone who saw it with his own eyes and heard it with his own ears. Otherwise, it would be attaching importance to false rumour flying from one foul lip to another. The Hon’ble Supreme Court of India in Kalyan Kumar Gogoi Vs. Ashutosh Agnihotri And Another 2011 [2] SCC 532 has held that: “19. The term `hearsay’ is used with reference to what is done or written as well as to what is spoken and in its legal sense, it denotes that kind of evidence which does not derive its value solely from the credit given to the witness himself, but which rests also, in part, on the veracity and competence of some other person. The word `hearsay’ is used in various senses. Sometimes it means whatever a person is heard to say. Sometimes it means whatever a person declares on information given by someone else and sometimes it is treated as nearly synonymous with irrelevant. The sayings and doings of third person are, as a rule, irrelevant, so that no proof of them can be admitted. Every act done or spoken which is relevant on any ground must be proved by someone who saw it with his own eyes and heard it with his own ears. 20. … … 21. Here comes the rule of appreciation of hearsay evidence. Hearsay evidence is excluded on the ground that it is always desirable, in the interest of justice, to get the person, whose statement is relied upon, into court for his examination in the regular way, in order that many possible sources of inaccuracy and untrustworthiness can be brought to light and exposed, if they exist, by the test of cross- examination. The phrase “hearsay evidence” is not used in the Evidence Act because it is inaccurate and vague. It is a fundamental rule of evidence under the Indian Law that hearsay evidence is inadmissible. A statement, oral or written, made otherwise than a witness in giving evidence and a statement contained or recorded in any book, document or record whatever, proof of which is not admitted on other grounds, are deemed to be irrelevant for the purpose of proving the truth of the matter stated. An assertion other than one made by a person while giving oral evidence in the proceedings is inadmissible as evidence of any fact asserted. That this species of evidence cannot be tested by cross-examination and that, in many cases, it supposes some better testimony which ought to be offered in a particular case, are not the sole grounds for its exclusion. Its tendency to protract legal investigations to an embarrassing and dangerous length, its intrinsic weakness, its incompetency to satisfy the mind of a Judge about the existence of a fact, and the fraud which may be practiced with impunity, under its cover, combine to support the rule that hearsay evidence is inadmissible. 22. The reasons why hearsay evidence is not received as relevant evidence are: (a) the person giving such evidence does not feel any responsibility. The law requires all evidence to be given under personal responsibility, i.e., every witness must give his testimony, under such circumstance, as expose him to all the penalties of falsehood. If the person giving hearsay evidence is cornered, he has a line of escape by saying “I do not know, but so and so told me”, (b) truth is diluted and diminished with each repetition and (c) if permitted, gives ample scope for playing fraud by saying “someone told me that………..”. It would be attaching importance to false rumour flying from one foul lip to another. Thus statement of witnesses based on information received from others is inadmissible.” [Also refer: Sakatar Singh and Others Vs. State of Haryana 2004 [11] SCC 291; Pammi @ Brijendra Singh Vs. Government Of Madhya Pradesh 1998 CRI.L.J. 1617; Rayma Jusab Alimamad Vs. State Of Gujrat 1965 [2] CRI.L.J. 448 and Sant Ram And Others Vs. State 1952 CRI.L.J. 1223] The only exception to the rule of exclusion of hearsay evidence is Section 6 IEA. Thus, a Defence Lawyer must object to the hearsay evidence being deposed by a prosecution witness. Objection to exhibition of Photocopy Documents or Electronic Evidence or Bank Account Statements: In case of documentary evidence, the Indian Evidence Act distinguishes between Primary and Secondary Evidence. (See: Section 61 IEA) Photocopy Document – However, without fulfilling the conditions under Section 65 IEA, a photocopy or xerox document is inadmissible in nature and cannot be proved by a witness. In case the same is sought to be exhibited by the prosecution, the Defence Lawyer ought to object to the same. [Ref: Shalimar Chemical Works Limited Vs. Surender Oil and Dal Mills (Refineries) and Others 2010 [8] SCC 423 and Doctor Morepen Ltd Vs. Poysha Power Generation P. Ltd 2013 [137] DRJ 261] Electronic Document – An electronic document can be brought into evidence, only if the same is accompanied with a certificate under Section 65B IEA and thus, an electronic document, without such a certificate, cannot be proved by a witness. In case the same is sought to be exhibited by the prosecution, the Defence Lawyer ought to object to the same. [Ref: Anvar P.V. P.K. Vs. P.K. Basheer and Others 2014 [10] SCC 473] Print out of Bank Account Statements: A printout of entry or a copy of printout referred to in sub-section (8) of section 2 is required to be accompanied by a Certificate under Section 2A of the Bankers’ Book Evidence Act, 1891. Sub-section (8) of section 2 reads as under: (8) “certified copy” means when the books of a bank,— (a) are maintained in written form, a copy of any entry in such books together with a certificate written at the foot of such copy that it is a true copy of such entry, that such entry is contained in one of the ordinary books of the bank and was made in the usual and ordinary course of business and that such book is still in the custody of the bank, and where the copy was obtained by a mechanical or other process which in itself ensured the accuracy of the copy, a further certificate to that effect, but where the book from which such copy was prepared has been destroyed in the usual course of the bank’s business after the date on which the copy had been so prepared, a further certificate to that effect, each such certificate being dated and subscribed by the principal accountant or manager of the bank with his name and official title; and (b) consist of printouts of data stored in a floppy, disc, tape or any other electro-magnetic data storage device, a printout of such entry or a copy of such printout together with such statements certified in accordance with the provisions of section 2A. (c) a printout of any entry in the books of a bank stored in a micro film, magnetic tape or in any other form of mechanical or electronic data retrieval mechanism obtained by a mechanical or other process which in itself ensures the accuracy of such printout as a copy of such entry and such printout contains the certificate in accordance with the provisions of section 2A. Thus, any bank account statement document, without such a certificate, cannot be proved by a witness. In case the same is sought to be exhibited by the prosecution, the Defence Lawyer ought to object to the same. Such a document, which is not admissible in the eyes of law, is liable to be Marked, instead of being exhibited. However, in case the document is still Exhibited by the Court, then the Defence Lawyer should ensure that his objection is recorded to the exhibition of the same. The Hon’ble Supreme Court has held in Sait Tarajee Khimchand & Ors. v. Yelamarti Satyam Alias Satteyya 1972 (4) SCC 562 that: “15. … The mere marking of an exhibit does not dispense with the proof of documents” Objection to the Exhibition of document on the Mode of Proof thereof: There are cases when the prosecution seeks to prove a document through a witness, who is, though, not the author of the document. It is a general principle that contents of a document can only be proved by its author. In case such an attempt is made, the Defence Lawyer ought to object to the exhibition of the said document by a witness, who is not the author of the said document. In case no such objection is raised, the Defence is subsequently barred from raising such an objection, in view of the law laid down in R.V.E. Venkatachala Gounder Vs. Arulmigu Viswesaraswami & V.P. Temple and Another 2003 [8] SCC 752. It is the duty of the Defence Lawyer to ensure that a witness does not prove anything that he is not entitled to prove. Objection to giving evidence contrary to a written document: There is a famous Hindi Saying “likhtam ko bhaktam ki zaroorat nahi” (there is no requirement of oral evidence of a written record). This principle is incorporated in Section 91 and 92 IEA. In a criminal trial, there are occasions when the prosecution seeks to examine witnesses to give evidence contrary to a written record. However, as oral evidence, contrary to a written record, is barred under Section 91 and 92 IEA, thus, in case any such attempt is made, the Defence Lawyer should promptly object to the same. Objections to the Opinion by a non-expert Witness: As a general rule, opinion of witnesses is inadmissible, as a witness is to depose the facts and not opinions. The only set of people entitled to give an opinion are those persons categorised as experts under Section 45 IEA and none other. If the opinion of a non-expert witness is sought to be introduced in evidence by the prosecution, then the Defence Lawyer must raise an objection regarding the same. Objection to the witness deposing about aspects of which the Court can take Judicial Notice under Section 56 IEA: There are occasions which the witness seeks to depose regarding aspects of which the Court can take Judicial Notice under Section 56 IEA. Section 56 reads as under: 56. Fact judicially noticeable need not be proved. — No fact of which the Court will take judicial notice need to be proved. In such a case, the Defence Lawyer can object to the same. Ref: The Hon’ble Delhi High Court in Ved Prakash Kharbanda vs. Vimal Bindal, 2013 (198) DLT 555 held as under: “13.5 Nothing can be said to be ―proved‖, however much material there may be available, until the Court believes the fact to exist or considers its existence so probable that a prudent man will act under the supposition that it exists. For example, ten witnesses may say that they saw the sun rising from the West and all the witnesses may withstand the cross-examination, the Court would not believe it to be true being against the law of nature and, therefore, the fact is ‗disproved’. In mathematical terms, the entire evidence is multiplied with zero and, therefore, it is not required to be put on judicial scales. Where the Court believes the case of both the parties, their respective case is to be put on judicial scales to apply the test of preponderance.” Objections to the exhibition of the entire Disclosure Statements of the Accused by the Prosecution: Sections 25 to 27 IEA deal with statements made by an Accused to the Police during the investigation of the matter. A statement, which leads to the discovery of a fact under Section 27 IEA is called a Disclosure Statements. However, in a disclosure statement, only and only the portion of the statement which lead to the discovery of a fact or thing is admissible in evidence. [Ref: Goverdhan @ Amit Vs. State 2009 [3] JCC 2051] Thus, in case the prosecution seeks to have the entire statement exhibited, the Defence Lawyer ought to object to the same, as all the other portion of the statement is inadmissible in nature. Contesting the attempt of the prosecution to declare a witness as Hostile: There is a tendency of Prosecutors in India to have a witness declared as hostile, however, it is stated that the Evidence Act does not define the term “Hostile Witness”. Rather, the prosecution is to seek permission of the Court to cross-examine its own witness under Section 154 of the Indian Evidence Act. Hence, while such a request is being made, it is the duty of the Defence Lawyer that such a request is duly contested. Simultaneously, it is also the duty of the Defence Lawyer to ensure that even if such a permission is granted, the Prosecutor should confine himself to the aspects on which the permission is so granted. It is also important for the Defence Lawyer to be present and observe the body language of the witness while the said request is being made to the time of cross-examination of the witness by the Prosecution. Objection to the proof of Statement recorded by the Investigating Officer under Section 161 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973: Statements of witnesses recorded by the Police under Section 161 Cr.P.C., 1973 are per-se inadmissible, according to Section 162 of the Code. There are cases in which the Prosecution, after having got declared a witness as hostile, seek to prove a statement made by the witness to the Police, however, the same is inadmissible in nature and the Defence Lawyer ought to object to the same. Ref: Satish Kumar Vs. State 1995 [34] DRJ [DB]: (21) In her cross-examination by the prosecution, she had affirmed the fact, an suggested to her, that she had told the police that her son Suresh had returned at 12 midnight and had gone behind the hut for urination and she had also stated to the policy that the appellant, Satish Kumar, had followed Suresh. She hid also stated to the police that she heard the noise of her son saying “HAI Ma Muj he Bachaao, Suresh Ne Mujhe Chaku Mar Diya HAI”. These statements made by the witness in cross-examination appear to be wholly inadmissible in evidence because it need not be emphasised that any statement to the police made by any witness is not admissible in evidence and such a statement could be used only for the purpose of contradicting the witness in view of provisions of Section 162 of Criminal Procedure Code read with Section 145 of Indian Evidence Act. (22) We are surprised that the Additional Sessions Judge, who recorded” the evidence, had lost sight of such elementary legal principles of taking evidence in a case. The prosecutor who put the questions in this form to elicit the answers was also perhaps completely ignorant of the legal procedure for cross-examining the witness produced by the prosecution itself. The questions which ought to have been put to the witness while cross- examination by the prosecutor, should have elicited facts and not statements made to the police. So, this part of the testimony of the witness has to be completely ignored from consideration as to what she had stated to the police. Objection to the Exhibition of a letter written by a witness to the Investigating Officer: There are various cases, especially in a CBI trial, wherein during the investigation of a matter, a witness writes a letter / communication to the Investigating Officer, which letter is, during the trial, sought to be exhibited by the Prosecution. However, the said letter / communication is barred under Section 162 Cr.P.C. and thus, the Defence Lawyer should object to the exhibition of the same. In this regard, reference may be made to the judgment of the Hon’ble Supreme Court of India in Kali Ram Vs. State of Himachal Pradesh 1974 Cri.L.J. 1. Conclusion: Thus, just as cricketers have to be agile on the field, a Defence Lawyer must be mentally agile and vigilant during the examination in chief. He needs to ensure that the statements are accurately recorded and raise objections to evidence which is impermissible in the eyes of law. They must assist the Court by pointing out when the prosecution is looking to prove facts which are not relevant or when a witness tries to overstep the bounds of his personal knowledge and recollection. The Defence Lawyer must ensure that the Prosecutor is using modes and manners of proof which are permissible under the Evidence Act, which is essential for a fair trial. A vigilant lawyer ensures that the checks and balances for the fair and proper recording of evidence during the examination in chief is maintained. Next Storylast_img

Filing Of The Charge-sheet By Itself, Does Not Entitle An Accused To Copy Of Statement Recorded U/s 164 CrPC: SC [Read Judgment]

first_imgTop StoriesFiling Of The Charge-sheet By Itself, Does Not Entitle An Accused To Copy Of Statement Recorded U/s 164 CrPC: SC [Read Judgment] Ashok Kini8 Oct 2020 6:19 AMShare This – xFiling of the charge-sheet by itself, does not entitle an accused to copies of any of the relevant documents including statement under Section 164 of the Code, the Supreme Court observed while setting aside the Allahabad High Court order which allowed the plea of former Union Minister and BJP leader Chinmayanand to seek a certified copy of the statement of the rape victim.The right to receive…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginFiling of the charge-sheet by itself, does not entitle an accused to copies of any of the relevant documents including statement under Section 164 of the Code, the Supreme Court observed while setting aside the Allahabad High Court order which allowed the plea of former Union Minister and BJP leader Chinmayanand to seek a certified copy of the statement of the rape victim.The right to receive a copy of such statement will arise only after cognizance is taken and at the stage contemplated by Sections 207 and 208 of the Code and not before, the three judge bench headed by Justice Uday Umesh Lalit held.The court observed that the High Court ‘completely erred and failed’ in appreciating the directions issued in the judgment State of Karnataka vs. Shivanna alias Tarkari Shivanna, especially in a matter where the offences alleged against accused are of sexual exploitation.The High Court in this case, had relied on Shivanna to hold that, once the investigation is over and a report is filed under section 173 of CrPC at that stage the copy of the statement under Section 164 CrPC along with other relevant documents can be asked by the concerned person. [The background facts of this can be read here] Disagreeing with this approach, the bench, also comprising Justices Vineet Saran and S. Ravindra Bhat, took note of the statutory provisions of Criminal Procedure Code and said:”It is only after taking of the cognizance and issuance of process that the accused is entitled, in terms of Sections 207 and 208 of the Code, to copies of the documents referred to in said provisions. The filing of the charge-sheet by itself, does not entitle an accused to copies of any of the relevant documents including statement under Section 164 of the Code, unless the stages indicated above are undertaken. Thus, merely because the charge-sheet was filed by the time the High Court had passed the order in the present matter, did not entitle Respondent No.2 to a copy of the statement under Section 164 of the Code.”The court further clarified that no person is entitled to a copy of statement recorded under Section 164 of the Code till the appropriate orders are passed by the court after the charge-sheet is filed. It said:”The right to receive a copy of such statement will arise only after cognizance is taken and at the stage contemplated by Sections 207 and 208 of the Code and not before.””Though, a copy of the statement recorded under Section 164 of the Code was made over to the accused, we must set aside the order passed by the High Court and lay down that under no circumstances copies of statements recorded under Section 164 of the Code can be furnished till appropriate orders are passed by the Court after taking cognizance in the matter.”Case no.: CRIMINAL APPEAL NO.659 OF 2020  Case name: MISS “A” VS. STATE OF UTTAR PRADESH Coram: Justices UU Lalit, Vineet Saran and S. Ravindra Bhat,Click here to Read/Download JudgmentRead Judgment Subscribe to LiveLaw, enjoy Ad free version and other unlimited features, just INR 599 Click here to Subscribe. All payment options available.loading….Next Storylast_img read more