As the weather grows cooler most landscape plants begin to go dormant. Fall is an excellent time to install new plant material. Many home gardeners like to install plants in the spring when their leaves are unfurling and many go into bloom. Spring planting is acceptable, but fall planting is preferable. The summer months are not good for planting due to the intense heat and prolonged dry spells.Newly installed plant material, even if properly watered, is highly stressed and can die. In the fall months, the air temperatures have cooled and the plants are not under as much stress. The stems and leaves will begin going dormant, but the roots will continue to grow in the soil. Cold weather gives the plant more time to become established and develop a strong, healthy root system. By the following spring and summer, the plants will be more resistant to heat and drought conditions. Spring-planted trees and shrubs have a much shorter period of time to become established. This makes them more vulnerable to the stresses of summer.For trees and shrubs, dig the width of the hole at least one and one-half to two times the size of the root ball. Plant it at the same depth as it was in the container. Do not install the plant’s crown below soil level. Planting too deeply can lead to rot and other problems leading to damage and possible death of the plant material. Research has shown adding organic matter, like compost or top soil, to the hole is not necessary. The plant’s roots might be so happy in the rich soil that it prevents their roots from growing out into the native soil. However, when planting a bed of multiple trees and shrubs, add organic matter and till it in throughout the entire planting bed. Do not fill the individual holes with organic matter.When purchasing plants, select plants that appear healthy and free of insects and diseases. Pull the plant out of the pot and examine the roots. Healthy roots should be white or light brown and spread throughout the root ball. Avoid plants with black mushy roots, or those with poorly developed root systems. If plants roots are matted around the edge of the root ball, use a knife and make a few cuts to break up the mat and allow the roots to spread. Do not apply fertilizer to the individual planting holes. Wait until the plants become established before fertilizing. Thoroughly water the plants once or twice a week. Apply two to three inches of mulch, such as pine straw, pine bark or cypress mulch, around the plants. Do not mass mulch around the stems of the trees and shrubs. This can lead to disease and insect infestation of the stem. Fall is the best time of the year to establish trees, shrubs, and many types of perennials. Install these plants now to enjoy them in the spring and into the future. For more information on fall plantings, contact your local University of Georgia Extension office at 1-800-ASK-UGA1.
The findings partially parallel an earlier study in which Chinese researchers found the SARS-CoV in the intestinal tract, sweat glands, and kidneys of SARS victims, in addition to the lungs. That study, however, found no virus in the lymph nodes or muscles. See also: Their study was published electronically in advance of the Jan 15, 2005, issue of the Journal of Infectious Diseases. The authors note that watery diarrhea has often been reported as a SARS symptom. That observation and their own findings indicate that gastrointestinal involvement is common in SARS, which has “implications for infection-control measures and the potential for fecal-oral transmission in community outbreaks,” the report says. The study focused on victims of the SARS outbreak in the Toronto area from March to September of 2003. Autopsies were performed on 21 of 44 patients whose deaths were attributed to SARS. Fifty-one patients who died of other causes during the outbreak and underwent autopsies were used as controls. The researchers found SARS-CoV in 19 of 19 patients who died within 51 days after the onset of infection. All 206 postmortem samples from the 51 non-SARS patients were negative for the virus. Besides the lungs, the SARS virus was found in the small and large bowel, lymph nodes, spleen, liver, heart, kidney, and skeletal muscle of at least some patients. The virus was found in the small and large bowel in 73% (11 of 15) of patients, in the heart in 40% (7 of 18), and in skeletal muscle in 12% (2 of 17). May 10, 2004, CIDRAP News story, “Study suggests food, sweat, waste could spread SARS virus” Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests were used to detect SARS-CoV in organ samples. Dec 23, 2004 (CIDRAP News) Although primarily associated with lung infection, the coronavirus that causes SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) spreads throughout the human body, Canadian researchers have found. “We observed extrapulmonary dissemination of the virus into all major organs, especially the bowel and lymph nodes. These data have implications for the clinical manifestation, disease course and outcome, and transmission of SARS-CoV [SARS coronavirus],” says the report by Gabriella A. Farcas and colleagues of the University of Toronto and three other Toronto institutions. Farcas GA, Poutanen SM, Mazzulli T, et al. Fatal severe acute respiratory syndrome is associated with multiorgan involvement by coronavirus. J Infect Dis 2005 Jan 15:191(2):193-7 [Abstract]