Microbiome Research Challenges Classical Concept of Self

first_imgNew research suggests humans are not the individual, unique characters we believe ourselves to be.It turns out, we’re actually a walking, talking collection of trillions of organisms. (A “megaorganism,” if you will.)“Evidence shows that our resident microbes orchestrate the adaptive immune system, influence the brain, and contribute more gene functions than our own genome,” according to an article published in the open-access journal PLOS.The three classic biological explanations for the individual self—the immune system, the brain, the genome—are being “challenged,” the study said, by the new field of microbiome research.The more scientists learn about the microbiome, the less the idea of humans as a singular organism rings true.“There is now overwhelming evidence that normal development as well as the maintenance of the organism depends on the microorganisms (collectively the microbiome) that we harbor,” the article states.Comprising about half the cells in our body, microbes wield great power over the human brain, immune system, and gene functions.“The realization that humans are not individual, discrete entities but rather the outcome of ever-changing interactions with microorganisms has consequences beyond the biological disciplines,” study authors Tobias Rees of McGill University, Thomas Bosch from the University of Kiel, and Angela Douglas of Cornell University explained.This is not to say that humans are not unique; look around and you’ll see that we are all different from each other. The real takeaway is that our uniqueness doesn’t come just from genetics or our brains, but also from the hoards of other organisms crawling around us.“The challenge is big, the opportunity even bigger: It is time, and perhaps past time, to rethink collaboratively—beyond arts and science divisions—what it means to be a living human being at home in a microbial world, one on which we depend and with which we are inseparably interwoven,” the researchers said.“Microbiome science has the exciting—and important—potential to catalyze the breakdown of the anachronistic barriers between the natural and the human sciences and enable a truly integrated understanding of what it means to be human, after the illusion of the bounded, individual self.”After all: “The human is more than the human.” Let us know what you like about Geek by taking our survey. Warning: Don’t read this if you struggle with your sense of self.last_img read more

MoviePass and More Your Guide To Movie Theater Subscriptions

first_img Top Movie and TV Trailers You Might Have Missed This WeekWatch These Movies Before ‘Hustlers’ Stay on target SinemiaThe most direct competitor to MoviePass on here, this one-time California-exclusive movie subscription service has now spread to America, Canada, Turkey, the U.K., and Australia.What You PaySinemia has a wide range of plans depending on how many tickets and perks you want with your subscription. You could pay as low as $5 per month up to $55 per month for individual or discounted family plans. Occasional limited discounts, like during the summer, even drop the price to $4.What You GetSinemia’s cheapest plan gives you one ticket per month with no limits on what theaters you can go to and the ability to buy tickets in advance. Its priciest plans grant three tickets per month including tickets for premium formats like 3D and IMAX.Where You Can WatchLike MoviePass, Sinemia is supported at a wide range of theaters, and you can see for yourself in the app if your local theater is included. Cinemark Movie ClubCinemark isn’t AMC, but it’s still a huge theater chain that can totally pull off having its own movie subscription service.What You PayCinemark Movie Club starts at $9 per month and each new ticket you want costs an additional $9 per month.What You GetAlong with the a la carte ticket pricing, Cinemark Movie Club members get discounts on food, reserved seats, and the ability to rollover unused tickets. However, premium formats aren’t covered.Where You Can WatchLike AMC, Cinemark’s service is limited to Cinemark theaters. That’s great news if you’re in Brazil, where it’s the largest theater chain. But even in America that means you’re looking at nearly 350 locations. For decades movie theaters have tried weird gimmicks to stave off rival forms media. Sure in 1950s you could watch stuff at home on your TV, but only True Cinema could offer experiences like 3D, super-duper widescreen, and whatever else convinced you to pay up for a ticket. And that dynamic really hasn’t changed at all, right down to 3D still being a thing.In a world where there’s seemingly endless content to watch on every screen phone, laptop, and internet-connected TV screen imaginable, movie theaters mainly exist as place for film fans to collectively mourn the form and for everyone else to make sure Twitter doesn’t spoil a Marvel stinger for them. We’re in a new age of theater desperation, so naturally there’s been a rise of a new gimmick to stave it off.Subscriptions are the hot new movie theater trend. Instead of paying Netflix every month to watch overlong TV shows, why not pay the theater or an outside service every month to see whatever current movie you want wherever and whenever you want (to a point). It’s like Spotify or Blue Apron but for freeing yourself from a la carte movie-watching instead of record or grocery stores. And also like Spotify and Blue Apron, the space is becoming increasingly competitive.When you think of movie theater subscriptions, the only name you’ve probably heard of is MoviePass, which pioneered the concept but is perhaps so convenient that it’s actually not profitable. Still, the industry clearly sees this model as the future as there are now multiple movie theater subscription services competing for your monthly tickets. The business, while not yet proven sustainable, has been validated.With competition comes consumer choice, choices you should be informed of before making. So here’s our guide to movie theater subscription services. They make all their real money off the popcorn anyway.MoviePassArguably the most recognized movie subscription service, with a MoviePass card or mobile app you gain access to countless movies at countless theaters.What You PayMoviePass’s two pricing tiers are the $7.95 per month MoviePass and $9.95 per month MoviePass Unlimited. Surge pricing also affects more popular movies.What You GetA base MoviePass subscriptions lets you watch three new movies per month (as well as a three-month trial of iHeartRadio All-Access). MoviePass Unlimited removes the cap and lets you watch as many movies as you’d like. The catch with both though is that you can only watch an individual movie once, a recent concession for actually making money instead of losing millions. So no repeat marathon sessions of Avengers: Infinity War.Also as the company’s money problems continue, random outages for certain popular new releases has become more common. For example, many users were unable to see Mission: Impossible- Fallout over opening weekend. Be aware that, unless MoviePass suddenly starts making ore money than it’s losing, these problems don’t seem to be going away. At a recent all-hands meeting MoviePass CEO Mitch Lowe said subscribers shouldn’t expect to see big movies right away going forward.Where You Can WatchMoviePass works across theaters, big chains and local multiplexes, and it’s up to them whether or not to participate. But MoviePass brags that it is accepted at over 91 percent of theaters nationwide. And you can check in the app if your theater is supported. Alamo Drafthouse Season PassGoing to an Alamo Drafthouse is a curated experience in and of itself. It can be more exciting than watching whatever movie you’re there for. The chain is small, with just 35 locations spread across major cities, but the cinephile fanbase is more than passionate enough to support a monthly subscription service.The Alamo Drafthouse Season Pass hasn’t started yet. In keeping with the company’s bespoke, deliberate nature the Yonkers, NY location will start sending out invites in July 18. So we don’t know what it will cost or include. This won’t rival MoviePass in terms of reach, but it could certainly be cooler. Now if only Alamo Drafthouse would deal with all those damning sexual assault issues.Let us know what you like about Geek by taking our survey. AMC Stubs A-ListWhy let third-party services make all the money from movie subscriptions when specific theaters, who already have customer loyalty programs, could just do them in-house? As the largest American theater chain, AMC is uniquely positioned to pull this off.What You PayAMC Stubs A-List is a single, $20 per month plan that includes all the benefits of regular old AMC Stubs.What You GetIn addition to seeing three movies a week in any format (and that’s week, not month), subscribers also get cash back, free and discounted food, and access to priority lanes when the theater is particularly crowded.Where You Can WatchObviously, the AMC subscription only works at AMC theaters. There are over 650 AMC theaters in North America alone, but your choices will be more limited compared to brand-agnostic movie subscription services.last_img read more

The Ultimate Super Smash Bros Character Guide Young Link

first_imgWho Are They?Part of what made The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time so memorable was its focus on “time.” Before being hurled into the future to play as adult Link, player spent the first dungeons as the more innocent Young Link, just a little elf boy with a sword hanging out in the forest. This same Young Link, after regaining his childhood in one of the three split timelines, also starred in the much darker and weirder Majora’s Mask.Smash HistoryAs far as the secret clone characters in Super Smash Bros. Melee go, at least Young Link’s clone status is right in his name. So both of Link’s N64 Ocarina forms were represented. Many interpreted the appearance of cel-shaded Wind Waker “Toon Link” in later Smash Bros. games to be the next evolution of Young Link. But now both child heroes of Hyrule can battle it out in Super Smash Bros. Ultimate.What Looks New in Ultimate?Young Link’s whole deal is that he’s smaller, faster, yet weaker than Link. His moves are also somewhat tweaked, like his fire arrows and traditional boomerang. Plus he can wall jump. But while he struggled in Melee, Young Link is looking surprisingly promising in Ultimate. He might be the best Link. Also, he’s now the only Link from the Ocarina of Time-era, arguably the definitive Zelda style.Our Hopes?With his Breath of the Wild makeover, Link is now fairly distinct from his two young counterparts. However, we are a bit concerned that having both Young Link and Toon Link will be a little redundant and we hope they have some significant differences we haven’t noticed. Everyone is here, but everyone should at least be slightly unique, even if they are technically reincarnations of each other.Super Smash Bros. Ultimate releases Dec. 7 for Nintendo Switch. Until we can play more for ourselves, changes we talk about here are mostly speculation. For more thoughts check out our Smash hands-on as well as cool Switch games to play that aren’t Smash Bros., because those definitely exist.View as: One Page Slides1/761. Read Mario’s Guide2. Read Donkey Kong’s Guide3. Read Link’s Guide4. Read Samus’s Guide5. Read Dark Samus’s Guide6. Read Yoshi’s Guide7. Read Kirby’s Guide8. Read Fox’s Guide9. Read Pikachu’s Guide10. Read Luigi’s Guide11. Read Ness’s Guide12. Read Captain Falcon’s Guide13. Read Jigglypuff’s Guide14. Read Peach’s Guide15. Read Daisy’s Guide16. Read Bowser’s Guide17. Read Ice Climbers’ Guide18. Read Sheik’s Guide19. Read Zelda’s Guide20. Read Dr. Mario’s Guide21. Read Pichu’s Guide22. Read Falco’s Guide23. Read Marth’s Guide24. Read Lucina’s Guide25. Read Young Link’s Guide26. Read Ganondorf’s Guide27. Read Mewtwo’s Guide28. Read Roy’s Guide29. Read Chrom’s Guide30. Read Mr. Game and Watch’s Guide31. Read Meta Knight’s Guide32. Read Pit’s Guide33. Read Dark Pit’s Guide34. Read Zero Suit Samus’s Guide35. Read Wario’s Guide36. Read Snake’s Guide37. Read Ike’s Guide38. Read Pokemon Trainer’s Guide39. Read Diddy Kong’s Guide40. Read Lucas’s Guide41. Read Sonic’s Guide42. Read King Dedede’s Guide43. Read Olimar’s Guide44. Read Lucario’s Guide45. Read R.O.B.’s Guide46. Read Toon Link’s Guide47. Read Wolf’s Guide48. Read Villager’s Guide49. Read Mega Man’s Guide50. Read Wii Fit Trainer’s Guide51. Read Rosalina and Luma’s Guide52. Read Little Mac’s Guide53. Read Greninja’s Guide54. Read Mii Fighters’ Guide55. Read Palutena’s Guide56. Read Pac-Man’s Guide57. Read Robin’s Guide58. Read Shulk’s Guide59. Read Bowser Jr.’s Guide60. Read Duck Hunt’s Guide61. Read Ryu’s Guide62. Read Cloud’s Guide63. Read Corrin’s Guide64. Read Bayonetta’s Guide65. Read Inkling’s Guide66. Read Ridley’s Guide67. Read Simon’s Guide68. Read Richter’s Guide69. Read King K. Rool’s Guide70. Read Isabelle’s Guide71. Read Ken’s Guide72. Read Incineroar’s Guide73. Read Piranha Plant’s Guide74. Read Joker’s Guide75. Read Hero’s Guide76. Read Banjo and Kazooie’s Guide Stay on target ‘Super Smash Bros. Ultimate’ Was Final Mission From Late Nintendo President‘Undertale’s’ Sans Is Basically a Brand New ‘Sma… center_img Young Link Grows Up!Super Smash Bros. Ultimate is huge. Not just in terms of hype and importance and sales potential, but just in terms of sheer stuff. The Nintendo Switch mascot fighter features over a hundred stages, nearly a thousand songs, and too many Pokemon and items and Assist Trophies to think of crammed onto a cartridge you can plan on the go or on a TV. When you have as many big franchises as Nintendo, putting them all in one game will make that game is very big boy indeed.But the biggest, most exciting thing about Super Smash Bros. Ultimate is its mind-blowing, heartwarming roster of playable characters. Fighting games pride themselves not just on the strength of their mechanics but the strength of its fighters, especially in a crossover fighters like this. And Super Smash Bros. Ultimate crushes all rivals by including every single playable character from the across the four previous games in the twenty-year-old series. Include the new combatants and so far we have over 70 fighters to wrap our heads around. We’re excited, but we’re also intimidated. So to get ready for Super Smash Bros. Ultimate, every day, character by character, we’re creating the ultimate guide to all of its characters. Today’s fighter: Young Link.last_img read more