Past atmospheric composition and chemistry from ice cores – progress and prospects

first_imgIce cores provide the most direct evidence available about the past atmosphere. For long-lived trace gases, ice cores have provided clear evidence that in the last two centuries, concentrations of several greenhouse gases have risen well outside the natural range observed in the previous 650 000 years. Major natural changes are also observed between cold and warm periods. Aerosol components have to be interpreted in terms of changing sources, transport and deposition. When this is done, they can also supply evidence about crucial aspects of the past environment, including sea ice extent, trace element deposition to the ocean, and about the aerosols available for cloud nucleation, for example. It is much more difficult to extract information about shorter-lived chemical species. Information may be available in components such as nitrate and formaldehyde, but to extract that information, detailed modern atmospheric studies about air to snow transfer, preservation in the ice, and the link between the polar region boundary layer and other parts of the atmosphere are urgently required.last_img read more

Illegal fishing still rife in North Natuna Sea: Ministry

first_imgSince the 115 anti-illegal fishing task force led by former minister Susi Pudjiastuti was disbanded in December, the ministry has arrested just 19 foreign fishing vessels, comprising Vietnam-, Malaysia- and Philippine-flagged fishing boats — a far cry from previous endeavors.Susi shot to fame during President Joko “Jokowi” Widodo’s first term for her insistence to “sink the ships” of other countries, but her strong personality was increasingly seen as a liability to the President, especially when it came to dealing with countries whose ships she had downed.She was replaced in Jokowi’s second term by Edhy Prabowo, an erstwhile lawmaker in the House of Representatives’ Commission IV overseeing marine resources.Observers have long bemoaned the continued practice of illegal fishing by other countries, which is partly exacerbated by a lack of surveillance ships and regulations.Read also: Minister Prabowo to deploy more ships to protect NatunaWhile Indonesia and Vietnam reached an agreement on a continental shelf boundary in 2003 after 30 years of negotiations, the two sides are still delimiting exclusive economic zones (EEZ) that some experts say will take many more years to settle.An EEZ grants exclusive rights to the country that controls it to exploit the resources within the water column, but both sides have overlapping claims.The claims have been a source of constant tension between the Southeast Asian neighbors, resulting in them agreeing to negotiate a “provisional arrangement” to prevent skirmishes at sea.Read also: Natuna tuna: Indonesia invites Vietnamese company to buy area’s fishVietnamese authorities have protested that their vessels were often caught in waters that both countries claimed as their own, but Haeru said he was “highly confident” that the latest boats to be seized were fishing well within Indonesia’s economic borders.“Even if they protested, there is an avenue for the Foreign Ministry to resolve the issue,” he said, adding that the crewmen have been sent to Batam to undergo further legal processes.The Vietnamese mission in Jakarta said it had not been informed of the arrest.Vietnam itself has been preoccupied with its own maritime skirmishes with China, after one of its own fishing boats was sunk by a Chinese white hull near the disputed Paracel Islands in the South China Sea last week, according to local reports.Hanoi lodged an official protest on Saturday, while the United States on Monday said it was “seriously concerned” about China’s actions and urged Beijing to instead focus on global efforts to fight the COVID-19 pandemic.Read also: Jakarta asserts sovereign rights on NatunaIndonesia was also caught in a diplomatic spat with China as early as December after it emerged that Chinese vessels had been illegally poaching in Indonesia’s EEZ for weeks.This sparked the Indonesian government’s order for hundreds of fishermen from the Javanese coastline to populate the North Natuna Sea, although only a few dozen have heeded the call.Topics : Most recently, the ministry detained two Vietnamese-flagged fishing vessels on Friday for illicit activities within the waters of Indonesia’s exclusive economic zone in Riau Islands province.The vessels, identified as KG 93811 TS and KG 93012 TS, were seized by the Orca 03 fisheries supervisory vessel, along with 22 Vietnamese crew members and illegal trawling equipment.The ministry’s director general of marine resources and fisheries supervision, TB Haeru Rahayu, said the boats were caught in the 711 Fisheries Management Area (WPP), which encompasses the Karimata Strait, the Natuna Sea and the North Natuna Sea. “Looking at the data in the field, it seems there is an increasingly concerning trend of more illegal fishing activities in North Natuna,” he told The Jakarta Post on Tuesday. As various government agencies scramble to contain the spread of COVID-19, illegal fishing in Indonesia’s outermost islands of the North Natuna Sea remains rife, a senior official at the Maritime Affairs and Fisheries Ministry has said.Indonesia’s vast and porous borders have been subject to years — even decades — of poaching by countries as far away as China, but the coronavirus pandemic has dominated much of the headlines since it spread throughout Southeast Asia over the past couple of months.But while most governments in the region have looked inward to curb the spread of the deadly disease within their respective borders, the disease has not stopped foreign fishermen from trying to fish illegally in Indonesian waters.last_img read more

Former US U19 cricketer Wilson slams ton in NY National Cricket League

first_imgFORMER US U19 cricketer Randall Wilson proved his outstanding batting prowess after back-to-back impressive knocks for the Phoenix Stars Cricket Club on Saturday in the New York National Cricket League.The Guyanese born cricketer slammed an even century and 31 from 30 balls, which propelled his side to a win and a loss in the 25-over competition at Baisley Pond Park.The matches were Wilson’s first for the club this season.Phoenix Stars, made up mainly of overseas-based Guyanese, are fifth in Group B, having won four of their seven games.MOMENTUMWilson, who left Guyana in 2009 after a short stint at the Demerara Cricket Club, said that his morning knock of 31 helped him to score his ton in the afternoon.“Felt great about it because we played an early morning game where I had a great start, but didn’t capitalize, so I took that momentum into the second game and just basically continued where I left off; just this time I was a bit smarter and more patient and yeah made the ton.”In the opening game against Everest/ACS, the eventual winners batted first and scored 213-7 in their allotted overs with Deveshwari Prashad hitting 59. Samuel Raghubir was the pick of the Phoenix Stars bowlers with 3-18 from five overs. In reply, the right-handed Wilson attempted to bat himself in, but he had little support. His 31 (five fours), was the highest score in the chase as the middle and lower order collapsed, which left the side all out for 81 in 21.4 overs.In their second clash against fellow Group B side New York Nepali CC (currently seven on the points table), Phoenix Stars batted first and led by opener Wilson were able to push their score to 213-5.The 24-year-old (25 on Tuesday), who spanked eight fours and six sixes, scored his 100 from 64 balls.On the field, Raghubir was again deadly with his off-spin bowling. The 31-year-old took 5-21 from five overs to help restrict the Nepali side to 83-all out in 18 overs.Support came from F. Azeez and Rameez Mohamed, who picked up two wickets each.last_img read more

Liverpool Rejects £113m Third Barcelona Bid For Coutinho

first_imgLiverpool has reportedly rejected another bid from Barcelona for midfielder, Philippe Coutinho.The new bid is believed to be worth an initial £113m which could rise to £118m based on the Brazilians performance at the Camp Nou.Liverpool has previously rejected two bids of £72million and £90m from Barcelona, reiterating their strong stance that “no offers for Philippe will be considered”.The 25-year-old Brazilian, who handed in an official transfer request to Liverpool via email last Friday, did not feature for Liverpool in their Premier League opener against Watford last weekend due to injury.RelatedBarcelona To Make Fourth & Final Coutinho Bid This Week – ReportsAugust 23, 2017In “Europe”Liverpool Reject Barcelona’s £90.4m Second Coutinho Bid – ReportsAugust 10, 2017In “England”Philippe Coutinho Is Not For Sale – Liverpool Releases Official Statement Amidst Barcelona InterestAugust 11, 2017In “England”last_img read more

Switching corn acres?

first_imgShare Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest The dust settled last week after the USDA news reporting upcoming massive corn acre estimates. With the recent 20-cent corn decline and 50-cent bean rally (over the last several weeks), many traders think farmers will switch more corn acres to beans. While logical, I’m not sure that will happen at levels traders anticipate. Farmers I speak with are not planning to make changes due to logistics or sunk fertilizer costs already applied.Similarly in the Dakotas, some traders think corn acres could be switched to spring wheat. Again while logical, after running the numbers, most farmers would need wheat to rally another 50 cents (compared to corn) to make this more profitable.Weather in the Delta may bring an opportunity to switch acres, but it’s such a small growing region that farmers in that area would need to switch 50% of acres to beans to have any impact. This isn’t likely.Lastly, don’t forget about insurance guarantees, which are the most attractive for corn. This year, farmers may try for the least loss of revenue, which may be accomplished by planting corn. Weather is always a factorBullish traders remember in 2012 the largest corn crop was expected in modern history, but ultimately the drought happened and changed everything. It’s important to note though, the drought impact of 2012 was the third year in a row with below average rainfall for the Corn Belt. The strongest El Niño on record prior to 15-16 was 97-98, where crop yields were normal and prices drifted lower into the 1998 harvest. There have been six similar El Niño events similar to 15-16 in the last 50 years and they all had different outcomes, so it’s hard to estimate future weather’s impact based upon so few historical events. Adding updated seed genetics and farmer technology makes comparisons even more difficult.That being said, if I didn’t think weather could still impact this market I would be 100% priced, which I’m not.Market actionBeansConsidering the recent bean rally, I priced 20% more of my 2016 beans last week at $9.21 against Nov. With this I am 40% priced for 2016. CornAfter letting the trade digest the release of the USDA report I still feel concerned that I am not far enough along in my 2016 corn marketing. I’m still not prepared to sell more futures at $3.75 against the Dec, but I want some downside protection while leaving me some upside potential.I bought a $3.70 put and sold a $3.30 put for 17 cents. I then sold a $4 Dec call for 18 cents to help offset the put spread cost. This trade represents about 5% of my anticipated production for 2016. With brokerage commissions this trade cost me less than a half cent per bushel and expires near Thanksgiving.What does it mean?• Below $3.70 but above $3.30 I get $3.70 for my corn• Below $3.30 I take the price of corn but I add 40 cents on to the price, thus $3 futures would mean my corn is worth $3.40• $3.20 futures would mean my corn is worth $3.60• Above $3.70 but below $4.00 I get whatever price corn is trading• Above $4 and I only get $4 regardless how high corn goesIn all the cases above I have to subtract a half cent from the final price to cover the cost of placing the trade.While I don’t know if this trade is ultimately the correct one, I’m pleased with the flexibility it offers and I’m comfortable with all the price outcomes possible, knowing what I know now after report. Basically, if prices go lower I have some protection, but if they go a little higher, I can take advantage. I certainly hope that futures rally above $4 this year, but I don’t want the risk if they do not.Lifting hedgesRecently a farmer asked me if I like to “lift hedges” if the market moves lower and has the possibility of bottoming out. The short and simple answer is no, I don’t lift hedges.Why?“Lifting hedges” is code for speculating. I don’t want to be a speculator with my marketing program. I have hedges in place so I know exactly where my grain is marketed. Additionally, my banker is completely on board with my program, and the last thing they want is me speculating. My banker trusts I am doing sound marketing that minimizes risk. I never want to violate that trust.How big of a hedging line do I need?A new client was surprised to find they received a hedge line with their bank that was bigger than their operating loan. While they may never need more than 25% of the hedge line, the rest is available should a margin call be needed. The bigger surprise to my new client…the banker was completely supportive of the large hedging line. This banker understood “Risk Off Hedging” and what was needed to make it successful.It helped the banker had followed my marketing strategy for many years and felt comfortable with his clients taking advantage of opportunity. However, I find most bankers understand hedging and prefer clients use proper hedging techniques versus speculating. I always speak with new clients’ bankers BEFORE starting a marketing program so I can verify the client and their banker are on the same page. We never want surprises down the road when margin calls accumulate.Why are few farmers doing “Risk Off Hedging”?Speaking with bankers, few farmers are taking advantage of this kind of marketing strategy. “Risk Off Hedging” isn’t sexy or exciting. It’s boring and safe, which unfortunately is not something most people like to participate in. However, boring and safe helps me sleep at night and understand/realize future farm operation profits.Be cautious of advice that suggests lifting hedges. It might turn out to be great advice, but remember you have another crop coming in less than a year that will need to be marketed. Adding more pressure to sell additional bushels in an uncertain market puts farmers in a risky position. What if the market really hasn’t bottomed out?Jon grew up raising corn and soybeans on a farm near Beatrice, NE. Upon graduation from The University of Nebraska in Lincoln, he became a grain merchandiser and has been trading corn, soybeans and other grains for the last 18 years, building relationships with end-users in the process. After successfully marketing his father’s grain and getting his MBA, 10 years ago he started helping farmer clients market their grain based upon his principals of farmer education, reducing risk, understanding storage potential and using basis strategy to maximize individual farm operation profits. A big believer in farmer education of futures trading, Jon writes a weekly commentary to farmers interested in learning more and growing their farm operations.Trading of futures, options, swaps and other derivatives is risky and is not suitable for all persons. All of these investment products are leveraged, and you can lose more than your initial deposit. Each investment product is offered only to and from jurisdictions where solicitation and sale are lawful, and in accordance with applicable laws and regulations in such jurisdiction. The information provided here should not be relied upon as a substitute for independent research before making your investment decisions. Superior Feed Ingredients, LLC is merely providing this information for your general information and the information does not take into account any particular individual’s investment objectives, financial situation, or needs. All investors should obtain advice based on their unique situation before making any investment decision. The contents of this communication and any attachments are for informational purposes only and under no circumstances should they be construed as an offer to buy or sell, or a solicitation to buy or sell any future, option, swap or other derivative. The sources for the information and any opinions in this communication are believed to be reliable, but Superior Feed Ingredients, LLC does not warrant or guarantee the accuracy of such information or opinions. Superior Feed Ingredients, LLC and its principals and employees may take positions different from any positions described in this communication. Past results are not necessarily indicative of future results. He can be contacted at [email protected]last_img read more

Color Grading Tips: The Ins and Outs of Correcting for a Pink Sky

first_imgThere are many elements that you can change in post-production with a little forethought. In this case, the color of the sky.A pink sky has become a predominant feature in many music videos. Is it a symbol of teenage freedom, late evening adventures, innocence of youth? I’m sure there are experts out there who could spend hours decoding the meaning and popularity behind the rise of pink skies in rap and alternative music videos. But perhaps it just comes down to Instagram influencers. Who knows?Whatever the case, there’s no denying that a pink sky looks beautiful. However, due to the circumstances of capturing one, since setting up at golden hour doesn’t exactly guarantee that the sky will turn pink, many filmmakers will opt to recreate a pink sky digitally. Before continuing, if you were wondering why sometimes the sky turns red, orange, or pink at sunset, here’s a snippet from my Golden Hour tutorial.When the sun is high in the sky from midday to late afternoon, there is very little interference from our atmosphere; the light is bright and the shadows are harsh. However, just after sunset or just before sunrise, the sun is just about level to the horizon, and the light has to travel through many miles of dense atmosphere before illuminating what we can see, which decreases the intensity of direct sunlight. The blue light emitting from the sun is caught up in the atmosphere leaving more red, yellow and orange to pass through, which gives the sun a nice warm golden glow. Very simply, golden hour is a short period just after sunrise and just before sunset.This article isn’t necessarily a tutorial because, quite frankly, all you do is push the highlights slightly into the magenta region, but there are a few factors to consider. As with converting day-for-night, there are requirements to help you pull off the grade, and this is what I’ll be covering.A Few Things First1. You still need to still film at Golden Hour.The scattering of the light will leave you with either a golden sky or a desaturated blue sky. Converting a saturated blue to pink will leave you with a very stylized result.For example, in the following music video for “Bounce Back” by Big Sean, the grade is very stylized.Based on the content of the music video, it’s evident that the filmmakers and the artist want you to notice the colors, as the video itself is very abstract. But we can see from the shots that they recorded a blue sky, and the pink grade appears unnatural. Again, in the context of this specific music video, it works, as that’s the intended result. But when aiming for a natural style, you want to film during the late evening.2. You want to use soft light if filming with actors.Subconsciously, we link a pink sky to a setting sun, which gives off soft light, and shadows are stretched. If your shot has a high contrast ratio, the pink sky may look slightly out of place. An excellent example of this is in Jaden Smith’s music video for “Icon.”You can see the pink sky isn’t natural as there’s some color bleed in Jaden’s jewelry — I had to zoom in 200 percent to spot this — but the look is a lot more believable. A big part of this is that the filmmakers shot the video in the evening with soft light, and I can’t be certain, but I would even go so far as to guess that they shot this with natural evening light, due to the lack of light hotspots in the reflection of the car and Smith’s jewelry.3. Not everything needs the pink cast.Yes, there should be a subtle pink cast across all highlights, but you don’t want the same intensity as the correction for the sky. Using the three tips above, we’ll walk through the steps of converting an evening sky into a pink sky. This is my shot; it’s of a musician climbing over a country fence, and for this specific shot, we’re focusing on the clouds in the background and dropping the musician out of focus.First, we’re going to add a second node along with a layer node. Select “node 01,” and for the time being, disable it (Ctrl+D). Your node tree should look like this. (Node 01 is for any base corrections I need to make after I have graded the sky.)On node 02, we’ll introduce our pink sky. There are numerous ways you can do this and achieve similar results. You could ramp the magenta tint up to 100, apply a gradient to create a CSI Miami-inspired gradient sky, use the Hue vs. Hue curve, and so on. They will all yield similar results, but we’re just going to push the gain/highlights color wheel toward magenta.The further you drive toward the edge of the color circle, the more defined the effect will be. But like a lot of things, less is more. And since I followed tips 1 and 2, introducing magenta into the highlights will, for the most part, only affect the areas of the image I want to adjust.The sky looks great; we have a warm fall-off onto the grass, which is what you would expect with a Golden Hour cast. However, the musician’s white shirt looks like it has gone through the washing machine with a red sock.We would expect his skin tones to become warmer and pinker, but we don’t want his top to become this colorized. To fix this, I will drop to the node underneath (04), and using the Custom Power Window Stencil, I’m going to draw around the short and give it a softness of 3.5. Of course, since the person in the frame is moving, I would then need to track this window too.Then, using the gain wheel, I’m going to introduce the smallest amount of magenta, just so the vest isn’t wholly bypassing the new natural light.This is the before:And this is the after:If necessary, you could also mask the grass and reduce the tint:However, I do like the overall pinkness from the first finished grade, but ultimately these creative choices would be up to you.Are you an Adobe Premiere Pro CC user? Then filmmaker and YouTuber Justin Odisho has you covered with a similar tutorial for that platform. Cover image via wayfarerlife.Looking for more on color grading? Check out these articles.Color Grading: Working with the Hue vs. Curves in DaVinci ResolveQuick Tip: Adjust the Color of Water in After EffectsVideo Editing Techniques for Color Correcting Skin TonesWhy Do Filmmakers Color Grade Moonlight to Be Blue?Color Grading: How to Change the Seasons in Premiere Prolast_img read more

Andy Murray says his best years can still be ahead of him

first_imgAndy Murray believes the best years of his career could still be ahead after confirming his status as world number one by beating Novak Djokovic to claim the ATP Tour Finals crown on Sunday.Murray, 29, became the oldest man since 1974 to reach the top of the rankings for the first time last month and the way he dominated the final months of the season, winning five titles and 24 matches in a row, suggests he could be right. (Murray beats Djokovic to win ATP World Tour Finals title)”I obviously want to try and achieve as much as I can these next few years because I’m not going to be around forever,” Murray, who won a second Wimbledon title and the Rio Olympics this year, told reporters after his 6-3 6-4 win at the O2 Arena.”These next few years, I want to try and make them the best of my career. But it’s going to be tough.”Had Murray lost to Djokovic on Sunday and relinquished top spot two weeks into his reign the chances are he would have overhauled the Serb again next year as he has fewer ranking points to defend in the months after the Australian Open.Having scaled the summit earlier than he expected, Murray may well take some shifting.”I would like to try and stay there. It’s taken a huge effort the last five, six months,” he said.”I’m aware that’s going to be extremely difficult. But now that I’ve got there, I obviously would be motivated to try and stay in that position.advertisement”But the majors are what gets me working hard and what really, really motivates me.”First, however, Murray will afford himself the luxury of a short rest after a gruelling week in London where he twice set a new record for the longest match in the tournament’s history.On Saturday he spent three hours 38 minutes defeating Canada’s Milos Raonic, having beaten Kei Nishikori in another three-hour epic in the group stage.He admitted he was running low on energy late on against Djokovic as the Serb staged a late rally.”I didn’t feel great this morning. The practice, the warm-up for the match, I was hitting the ball fine, but just a bit sluggish, a bit heavy-legged,” Murray said.”Thankfully the first sort of seven games of the match, there was no long rallies, which for us is strange. It wasn’t until the middle of the second set when the rallies started to get extended and longer that my legs were starting to feel it.”I knew that the longer the match went, the worse I was going to feel, and probably the better he was going to play.”I was lucky I got it finished in two sets.”last_img read more

SLB Reports Increase in Applications for Discounted Interest Rate Loans

TCI Police trained to cope with Mentally Ill in arrests

first_imgFacebook Twitter Google+LinkedInPinterestWhatsApp Related Items:arrests, mentally ill, tci police Facebook Twitter Google+LinkedInPinterestWhatsAppProvidenciales, 03 Jun 2015 – Twenty nine Police officers have since last year been undergoing training in dealing with mentally ill suspects and victims in crime. Dr. Diana Dizon, a psychiatrist with the Department of Mental Health is working with the police to help them better identify and manage cases where mental illness is or may be a factor. Dr. Dizon explained in a media statement on the events that, ““Occasionally police officers are involved in responding to calls involving persons with a mental illness. It is important that Police officers not only be able to recognize abnormal behavior and mentally ill persons, but also must be prepared to guard, restrain, or take into custody people whose behavior suggests the presence of a mental illness.” The sessions were said to focus on de-escalation skills, effective communication with the mentally ill, response to behavioral crisis including how to create stable environments, the do’s and don’ts of engaging mentally ill and assessing the potential of violence. Arrests & Charged – Providenciales & South Caicos Recommended for youlast_img read more